Kim et al., Antioxid Redox Signal, 2009

Cell therapy has tremendous potential for the damaged heart, which has limited self-renewing capability. Bone marrow (BM) cells are attractive for cell therapy, as they contain diverse stem and progenitor cell populations that can give rise to various cell types, including cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. Studies have shown BM cells to be safe and efficacious in the treatment of myocardial infarction. Possible therapeutic mechanisms mediated by both host and transplanted cells include cardiomyogenesis, neovascularization, and attenuation of adverse remodeling. In this review, different stem and

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Jeong et al., Circulation, 2009

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are known to promote neovascularization in ischemic diseases. Recent evidence suggested that diabetic neuropathy is causally related to impaired angiogenesis and deficient growth factors. Accordingly, we investigated whether diabetic neuropathy could be reversed by local transplantation of EPCs. We found that motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities, blood flow, and capillary density were reduced in sciatic nerves of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice but recovered to normal levels after hind-limb injection of bone marrow-derived EPCs. Injected EPCs were preferentially

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Cho et al., J Exp Med, 2007

Noncellular differentiation effects have emerged as important mechanisms mediating therapeutic effects of stem or progenitor cell transplantation. Here, we investigated the expression patterns and sources of humoral factors and their regional and systemic biological effects after bone marrow (BM)-derived endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) transplantation into ischemic myocardium. Although most of the transplanted EPCs disappeared within a week, up-regulation of multiple humoral factors was sustained for longer than two weeks, which correlated well with the recovery of cardiac function. To determine the source of the

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Cho et al., Regen Med, 2006

Since the first experiments of cell transplantation into the heart were performed in the early 1990s, the identification of adult stem cells has triggered attempts to regenerate damaged heart tissue by cellular transplantation. Until recently, a multitude of adult stem or progenitor cells from various tissues have been proposed to meet this end. Bone marrow in particular has emerged as the most promising source for stem and progenitor cells because, besides being the organ of hematopoietic maintenance, it contains a complex assortment of stem and progenitor cells. A large body of provocative experimental evidence for

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Lee et al., Exp Hematol, 2006

We have identified a subpopulation of stem cells within adult human bone marrow (BM), isolated at the single-cell level, that self-renew without loss of multipotency for more than 6 to 9 months of continuous cultures and exhibit the capacity for differentiation into cells of three germ layers. Based on surface marker expression, these clonally expanded human bone marrow-derived multipotent stem cells (hBMSCs) do not appear to belong to previously described BM-derived stem or progenitor cell populations.

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Cho and Yoon, Circ Res, 2006

Over the past few years, the field of stem cell biology and its therapeutic application in cardiovascular diseases has expanded remarkably and moved to the forefront of cardiovascular science. Promising results from experimental studies with bone marrow (BM)-derived stem or progenitor cells prompted initiation of clinical trials in ischemic heart diseases (IHD). Pilot clinical trials demonstrated that cell therapy using various BM-derived cells are safe and effective for treating IHD. The discovery that BM includes various stem cells spawned the strategy of directly mobilizing and homing BM cells into the heart to regenerate

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Ii et al., Circ Res, 2006

Delayed reendothelialization contributes to restenosis after angioplasty and stenting in diabetes. Prior data have shown that bone marrow (BM)-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to endothelial recovery after arterial injury. We investigated the hypothesis that the EPC contribution to reendothelialization may be impaired in diabetes, resulting in delayed reendothelialization. Reendothelialization was significantly reduced in diabetic mice compared with nondiabetic mice in a wire-induced carotid denudation model. The EPC contribution to neoendothelium was significantly reduced in Tie2/LacZ

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Qin et al., J Exp Med, 2006

The cell surface receptor alpha4 integrin plays a critical role in the homing, engraftment, and maintenance of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) in the bone marrow (BM). Down-regulation or functional blockade of alpha4 integrin or its ligand vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 mobilizes long-term HPCs. We investigated the role of alpha4 integrin in the mobilization and homing of BM endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). EPCs with endothelial colony-forming activity in the BM are exclusively alpha4 integrin-expressing cells. In vivo, a single dose of anti-alpha4 integrin antibody resulted in increased circulating EPC counts

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