Cho et al., J Exp Med, 2007

Noncellular differentiation effects have emerged as important mechanisms mediating therapeutic effects of stem or progenitor cell transplantation. Here, we investigated the expression patterns and sources of humoral factors and their regional and systemic biological effects after bone marrow (BM)-derived endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) transplantation into ischemic myocardium. Although most of the transplanted EPCs disappeared within a week, up-regulation of multiple humoral factors was sustained for longer than two weeks, which correlated well with the recovery of cardiac function. To determine the source of the

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Cho and Yoon, Circ Res, 2006

Over the past few years, the field of stem cell biology and its therapeutic application in cardiovascular diseases has expanded remarkably and moved to the forefront of cardiovascular science. Promising results from experimental studies with bone marrow (BM)-derived stem or progenitor cells prompted initiation of clinical trials in ischemic heart diseases (IHD). Pilot clinical trials demonstrated that cell therapy using various BM-derived cells are safe and effective for treating IHD. The discovery that BM includes various stem cells spawned the strategy of directly mobilizing and homing BM cells into the heart to regenerate

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Ii et al., Circ Res, 2006

Delayed reendothelialization contributes to restenosis after angioplasty and stenting in diabetes. Prior data have shown that bone marrow (BM)-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to endothelial recovery after arterial injury. We investigated the hypothesis that the EPC contribution to reendothelialization may be impaired in diabetes, resulting in delayed reendothelialization. Reendothelialization was significantly reduced in diabetic mice compared with nondiabetic mice in a wire-induced carotid denudation model. The EPC contribution to neoendothelium was significantly reduced in Tie2/LacZ

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Qin et al., J Exp Med, 2006

The cell surface receptor alpha4 integrin plays a critical role in the homing, engraftment, and maintenance of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) in the bone marrow (BM). Down-regulation or functional blockade of alpha4 integrin or its ligand vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 mobilizes long-term HPCs. We investigated the role of alpha4 integrin in the mobilization and homing of BM endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). EPCs with endothelial colony-forming activity in the BM are exclusively alpha4 integrin-expressing cells. In vivo, a single dose of anti-alpha4 integrin antibody resulted in increased circulating EPC counts

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Kusano et al., Nat Med, 2005

Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a crucial regulator of organ development during embryogenesis. We investigated whether intramyocardial gene transfer of naked DNA encoding human Shh (phShh) could promote a favorable effect on recovery from acute and chronic myocardial ischemia in adult animals, not only by promoting neovascularization, but by broader effects, consistent with the role of this morphogen in embryogenesis. After Shh gene transfer, the hedgehog pathway was upregulated in mammalian fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes. This resulted in preservation of left ventricular function in both acute and chronic

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Ii et al., Circulation, 2005

Peripheral neuropathy is a frequent and major complication of diabetes. Severe peripheral neuropathy developed in type II diabetic mice, characterized by significant slowing of motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities. Rosuvastatin restored nerve vascularity, including vessel size, and nerve function also recovered to the levels of nondiabetic mice. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in sciatic nerves was reduced in diabetic mice but was preserved by rosuvastatin. Coadministration of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor with rosuvastatin attenuated the beneficial effects of rosuvastatin on nerve function

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Kishore et al., J Clin Invest, 2005

TNF-alpha modulates EC proliferation and thereby plays a central role in new blood vessel formation in physiologic and pathologic circumstances. TNF-alpha is known to downregulate cyclin A, a key cell cycle regulatory protein, but little else is known about how TNF-alpha modulates EC cell cycle and angiogenesis. Using primary ECs, we show that ezrin, previously considered to act primarily as a cytoskeletal protein and in cytoplasmic signaling, is a TNF-alpha-induced transcriptional repressor. TNF-alpha exposure leads to Rho kinase-mediated phosphorylation of ezrin, which translocates to the nucleus and binds to cell

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Kirchmair et al., Circulation, 2005

Toxic neuropathies induced by cisplatin and other chemotherapeutic agents are important clinical problems because of their high incidence, their lack of effective treatment, and the fact that neuropathy represents a dose-limiting factor for these therapies. The pathogenic basis for toxic neuropathies induced by chemotherapeutic agents has not been completely elucidated. We investigated the hypothesis that experimental toxic neuropathy results from an antiangiogenic effect of these drugs, resulting in destruction of the vasa nervorum, and accordingly that the neuropathy could be prevented or reversed by locally

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Yoon et al., Circulation, 2005

Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by microvascular pathology and interstitial fibrosis, which leads to progressive heart failure; however, the pathogenesis of DCM remains uncertain. Using the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model, we evaluated the natural course of DCM over a period of 1 year by serial echocardiography, Western blot analysis for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial progenitor cell assays, myocardial blood flow measurements, and histopathologic analysis that included terminal dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL), capillary and cardiomyocyte density, and fibrosis

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